Sunday, January 26, 2020

Symbolism And Narrative Voice

Symbolism And Narrative Voice This extended essay aims to challenge the categorization of the female protagonists in Alice Walkers The Color Purple and Nawal El Saadawis Woman at Point Zero as repressed by examining the question How is symbolism and narrative voice used by the authors to demonstrate each womans struggle with marginalization? The scope of this essay encompasses two works which endeavor to empower women as it depicts their overcoming society ´s norms. The use symbolism and narrative voice by Walker and El Saadawi to portray Celie and Firdaus ´ experiences drew me to this particular work. This paper explores Walker and El Saadawi ´s use of these literary devices to cast the actual complexity and defiance of their protagonists ´ behavior, which overrides generalized nature of marginalization. Both books are an example of the influence caused by female ´s struggle with chauvinism in two very different cultures showing it is still a global problem as it is being referenced in two literary pie ces from distinct times. The essay counts with two main sections, each emphasized in the specific literary device which is aimed to be explored. It acknowledges the powerful effect of the narrative voices and the symbolism on the reader, on how these two devices are intentionally introduced by the authors to strengthen up the intensity of the protagonists life situation and by complementing each other they manage to give the character the development it deserves. Word Count: 230 Table of Contents Abstract 2 1. Introduction.. 4 2. Symbolismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ 5 3. Narrative Voiceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..10 4. Conclusion..16 Bibliography17 1. Introduction Women ´s struggle to overcome oppression has become a major issue over the last 50 years. The subjugation of women has not been an eternal feature of the human society, but it became a product of the development of class society. This struggle is something that two authors have tried to demonstrate, proving there is not only one point of view about it. Still women have fought for their importance and this gets to be evidenced through literary devices of symbolism and narrative voices in The Color Purple published in 1982 by Alice Walker, American writer and Woman at Point Zero published in 1975 by Nawal El Saadawi, Egyptian feminist. Books are a very efficient method to express an idea or a thought. Who does not have the ability to convey their feelings verbally has the ability to do so in writing, and regardless of the background context of the story (whether based on fact or fiction), by presenting these ideals in a written form, the necessary ingredients will be added to make the writing part of literature, that is why the literary features are as important and relevant as the same thread of the plot. The feminist genre has become a popular form of literature this is why the following question How is symbolism and narrative voice used by the authors to demonstrate each womans struggle with marginalization in The Color Purple and Woman at Point Zero? is going to be answered. It is important to generate a comparison between these two novels as they have been both written by female authors as stated before and they show the overcome of chauvinism by the main characters, writing about a subjective look into the es sential underdevelopment of marginalized characters. Celie from The Color Purple and Firdaus from Woman at Point Zero, are part of these characters, both led by different religions and political borders but with a very similar struggle. 2. Symbolism The use of symbolism throughout both novels is constantly present. Symbols have as a purpose to communicate a meaning. It is inside any literary piece to generate a deeper meaning in the stories [  [1]  ], generally, the symbols are highlighted through the book to support the literary theme, just as shown in The Color Purple and Woman at Point Zero, where symbols play an important role in the overcoming of the marginalization suffered by the main characters. To highlight in The Color Purple we find sisterhood, the relationship between Celie and her beloved sister Nettie, the one person who is constantly cheering Celie up and motivating her to keep on moving forward. The bond that represents their relationship is quilting. It is directly linked with the theme of sisterhood. Nettie and Celie used to spend their free time (their free time meant the time none of them were serving for their dad or generally doing household work) together laughing and sewing old pieces of curtains in order to make one single quilt. The idea of sewing up different pieces and making them part of one same whole, represents unity. The union between this two sisters, were leaning on each other formed a particular engine, especially used by Celie, to continue on with her life. The color purple itself is the most evident symbol in the book. Purple may have many meanings and they all fit into the story of the book. Every different meaning ties up the thread of the story and guides the reader through the characters struggle showing them all the process until they overcome chauvinism. In the first place, Shug Avery is the person who points out the concept of the color purple to Celie [  [2]  ]. Shug, tells Celie how God does small things for people, like creating the color purple just to make them happy and give them pleasure in their lives, he wants people to notice the beauty of his own creations, to love his creations. As Celie learns to love life throughout her whole development in the fight to reach her happiness, she learns to love her inner self, well just as the color purple is a very small but important creation she finally recognizes the beauty she carries with her and decorates her bedroom in her own home with the color purple. The bruises on Celie ´s beaten face throughout her pitiful life, the pain she has gone throughout her life has been showing off through the bruises in her face as she was being beaten up by her father and husband. Still all these bruises never stopped her from achieving her independence, the bruises just made her stronger. [  [3]  ] Last, the color purple is not as common as other colors; the actual color was discovered with the secretion produced by some mollusk found around the cities of Tyre. By being so rare and hard to find, it became a symbol of royalty because only the very wealthy people could afford it[  [4]  ]. In relationship to the book, Celie associates the color purple and longs for a purple dress[  [5]  ], well wearing it would make her feel more confident but overall, more powerful. The same color suffers en evolution as the development of Celie ´s struggle is being exceeded. At the beginning, Celie did not consider herself to be treated as royalty, though at the end, as she feels more confident, she decides that purple should now be the color that represents her. Clothes are a major symbol through the book. Pants, are another important factor. In the 1930 ´s, pants were not common amongst women; they were only used by men while women were only allowed to use fancy dresses or long skirts. This is why pants are the greatest symbol of women ´s liberation from the confines of a dress. When Celie decides not only to wear them, but to start her own business on them, she becomes freed from gender stereotypes. Therefore they represent liberation from patriarchy and sexism, as well as economic independence, where women show they can also have success without the help of men. Trousers are the main symbol in relationship to the overcome of struggle, they are the last symbol shown in the book letting the audience know how this change is Celie ´s last and ultimate achievement. The letters to God are also important, as the tale is being told primarily through Celie ´s own letters. Due to her isolation and despair, she initially addresses these letters to God. God is at first a confidant. Throughout the story, Celie by discovering the letters from Nettie that Mr__ had hidden from her: Now that I know Albert hiding Nettie ´s letters, I know exactly where they is.[  [6]  ]. This helps her regain confidence and hope, by feeling she does have someone else to lean on and she was never forgotten making her change the recipient of her letters to Nettie. After the whole story has concluded, the last letter written from Celie is once again addressed to God, the starts, the sky and every other one of his creations thanking him for all her achievements, showing the last phase of her struggle, the recovery.[  [7]  ] In Woman at Point Zero, Firdaus, a young woman waiting to be executed in an Egyptian prison, narrates the events and relationships that led her to become a prostitute and murder her pimp. El Saadawis perspective frames the story as she visits Firdaus in jail and feels overwhelmed by her strength. Money is one of the books greatest symbols as it creates a game between the parallelism of its own value and Firdaus; well a man does not know a woman ´s value. She is the one who determines her value. [  [8]  ] Firdaus was told by Sharifa that the higher you price yourself, the more he will realize what you are really worth, and be prepared to pay with the means at his disposal. And if he has no means, he will steak from someone else to give what you demand.[  [9]  ] On her own, she learns that her body has a monetary value to men, and gets advantage of the fact that pleasure was something men desired, meaning that for the first time, men depended on her. The more she built and strengthened her self-esteem, the more confident she felt, and the more confident she felt, the more she would charge and higher the price of her service. In fact the real symbol comes to be  ´price ´ as it is what really categorizes something or someone ´s value. Still the part of her narration with more symbolism is when Firdaus tears up the money and demonstrates money has no power over her anymore. The prince will then declare her a total princess, outside the reach of money. Being a prostitute means developing a job, and money is its remuneration but Firdaus wants more than just being paid for her job, she wants to be recognized as a strong woman. Firdaus ´s school certificates are also a symbol during her overcome. Books have accompanied her since she childhood; her first encounter with books was thanks to her uncle as he secretly taught her how to read. He was the first person who initially shows interest in the young Firdaus and tries to guide her towards a better future. Reading helped her realize that there is more than just her small and poor village. Later on, as she moves with her uncle she starts school and achieves not only her school certificate but gets much academic recognition. Being a scholar made her self-esteem rise, she was proud of what she had achieved by herself with no one elses intervention, I have a secondary school certificate, and I want to work [  [10]  ] she claimed. She knew her certificates would mean her departure to success. Finally we can find one of the biggest symbols throughout the book; eyes. Eyes are constantly mentioned and highlighted in the story. As Firdaus ´s story starts to develop, she emphasizes in the fact that eyes always seemed to gaze upon her. At the beginning, the images of the eye could be interpreted as something trivial, physical. But, as she mentions the eye that always looks upon her, and the story keeps progressing and she becomes more mature to at least distinguish from what is right and what is wrong, the image of the eye starts to refer as the conscience that is constantly reminding her about her occupation. This brought also the meaning and interpretation of a new symbol feared by Firdaus, the feeling of someone watching over her. Another important point is the cultural relationship between eyes and the Muslim religion. Women are not to show their eyes to strangers, and it is prohibited for them to downright into the eyes of their husbands and fathers, they should lower their eyes in sign of respect and admiration. Women that are still into the orthodox tradition should stay under the hijab to observe from there the outer world. [  [11]  ][  [12]  ] The change the image of the eye suffers can be seen as the change in Firdaus ´s outlook in life. As she grows up and understands the rules of society, her outlook on life switches from optimistic to hopeless. Still, at the end they show themselves again as widely open and confident. Both books contain these symbols to enhance and intensify the real meaning of this whole struggle by these women who have learned how to fend for themselves. These authors may coincide in the use of similar symbols, but the way in which Celie and Firdaus overcome their obstacles is completely different considering the variety of situations that surround them. It is their cultural differences what protrude amongst both characters and derives the other factors. In order to successfully communicate to a wide audience, we must recognize the fact that things carry different symbolic meanings to different cultures. Economic independence for example, is crucial in both characters but the means of obtaining this independence is completely different due to the cultural and systemic possibilities given to both women. This economic independence is symbolized with the obtention of money through prostitution in Woman at Point Zero and with pants in The Color Purple. While Firdaus has to go throug h social humiliation and lack of self-respect, Celie goes through a low self-esteem and a more stigmatized oppression from men who do empower over her with more facility than what men managed to obtain from Firdaus as the story progresses. 3. Narrative Voice Narrative voice is the persona telling the story; the persona develops from the personality and attitude of the narrator, which are expressed by the narrator ´s choice of words and incidents. These in turn depend on the point of view of the story. The point of view goes hand by hand with the narrative voice; it is what makes emphasis in the personality of the character meaning that it would show the development of the character along the story. [  [13]  ] An interesting characteristic of The Color Purle, is the fact that the first person narrator will introduce the events in letter forms. As it has been mentioned before, the first half of the book is told completely from Celie ´s point of view as she addresses letters to God in some diary form to let God know about everything that surrounds her. As the book opens, Celie is clearly a victim; her narrative actually begins as a result of her victimization. Her father tells her to hide from everyone the secret about him raping her, telling anyone but God. This was the initial motor for Celie to confide God about her struggles. As she is being emotionally, psychologically and physically isolated, she is immerse in the idea that she has no one who cares about her, this is why she also leans on God. Celie ´s point of view gets to be interesting. Unlike her sister Nettie, she is an uneducated woman as she has been forced to quit school around the age of fourteen to attend her pregnancy, pregnant by her own father. Her lack of education is demonstrated with her shortcomings in grammar and spelling but this does not cover the fact that she is still telling a powerful story; She ast me bout the first one Whose it is? I say God ´s. I don ´t know no other man or what else to say. When I start to hurt and then my stomach is moving and then that little baby come out my pussy chewing on it fist you could have knock me over with a feather. [  [14]  ] The previous quote demonstrates a perfect example of Celie ´s lack of education mixed with the intense situation she had to go through. Both factors as they are combined generate a much bigger impact on the reader as he gets immerse in a story where there is not only an educational problem but a tragic narration driving the reader to think of how the same lack of education may have caused to damages to Celie as she has no other guide other than her own ignorance. As Celie discovers her sister Nettie never stopped writing to her, but it was Mr.___ who hid the letters from her, she changes on the recipient of her letters; still there is nothing artificial about her writing style. The reader can always identify a pervasive and enduring quality of honesty throughout her letters. When I told Shug Im writing to you instead of God she laugh. Nettie don ´t know these people, she say. Considering who I been writing to, this strike me funny [  [15]  ] writes Celie to Nettie. Celie gains confidence as she knows she does have someone watching over her and even though God is somehow left aside, he does not lose importance, Celie just gets overwhelmed by the fact that her new discovery would have seemed something impossible. The previous quote indicates her happiness, happiness achieved for the first time in a very long period of time. This evokes hope amongst the audience and reflects the characters emotion. From this event on, the book makes a certain turn and the reader will continue on knowing about her story but not throughout the letters addressed to God, but this time in the letters between Celie and Nettie. Nettie, however, is an educated woman, her grammar and spelling are correct and she discusses more complex topics in the letters. Still, it does not compare to how powerful Celie ´s story is. In Woman at Point Zero even though the first person narrator persists, the story is differently told. The narrative point of view is used to inform the reader of the political and socio-cultural context of the situation in which the protagonists find themselves, due to the fact that it is not only a story but it is based in a real life situation. The voices vary not from character to character but from character to psychiatrist, who represents the voice of the author. El Saadawi ´s narrator starts by fulfilling the role of a psychiatrist who introduces the story of Firdaus. As the psychiatrist, she is looking forward to portray the traditional oppression of women, in this particular case she works on the oppression embedded within the Islamic traditions as well as the lack of gender equality. Firdaus ´s story begins to be embedded in which we think is El Sadaawi ´s life. I felt somehow that my research was now in jeopardy. As a matter of fact, my whole life seemed to be threatened with failure. My self-confidence began to be badly shaken, and I went through difficult moments[  [16]  ] The quote not only lets the reader know about her situation but corroborates the fact that she was there just to compliance with her work as a psychiatrist. As Firdaus agrees to see her, she now becomes the listener, Firdaus becomes the narrator. The psychiatrist gets immersed in who is supposed to be her patient ´s story, a new twist occurs, and the person who seemed to be vulnerable despite her wealthy economical position and social class; she expresses love and admiration for Firdaus who opened her eyes: The power of truth, as savage, and as simple, and as awesome as death, yet as simple and as gentle as a child that has not yet learnt to lie.[  [17]  ] The psychiatrist writes this after hearing Firdaus ´s story and watching her be escorted towards her execution. As she feels light-headed, Firdaus has convinced her that what surrounds her is a lie and, lies must be destroyed, this leaves her within the dilemma of thinking whether if her whole life has been an illusion or pure and simple reality. She also realizes that Firdaus is not in prison because authorities fear she will kill again if released, but because they fear the truth that she now possesses. Killing a pimp is not her real crime, exposing the hypocrisy and powerlessness of the leaders and princes she so despises, is. She now stops playing the role of the psychiatrist, and changes to play the role herself as a human being. Firdaus ´s story is purely more complex. Her story arises from silence, from her initial refusal to speak. This presence of the voice, which is meant to be experienced as the voice of a real person rather than the one of a fictional character, is the mark of a desire not to be silenced or defeated, a desire to impose oneself on an institution of power, from the position of the marginal. Firdaus was able to discover how Men impose deception on women and punish them for being deceived, force them down to the lowest level and punish them for falling so low, bind them in marriage and then chastise them with menial service for life, or insults, or blows.[  [18]  ] Men ´s imposition over women was just being developed with the excuse of a culture and a religion, but that was not to be allowed anymore. Life taught her the significance of being a woman inside her society. Her eyes went wide open over the fact that it was no obligation for women to yield over men, but it was women ´s obligations to have the courage of standing up against them and stop that believe once and for all. She is constantly expressing these emotions with resentment, an outraged tone evoking compatibility between the reader and the character through imagery. In her outcry against men ´s dominance, she exposes the multiple forms of hypocrisy and control used to gain authority over women. She hated men who tried to give her advice, or told her that they wanted to rescue her from the life she was leading, she said they saw themselves in some kind of chivalrous role.[  [19]  ] Indeed, all those who supposedly rescue Firdaus, men and women alike, end up using her for their own purposes. Though her life made her look as a victim, her tone as she tells her story does not show either sorrow or gloom, but anger and bitter. As it pertains to both books, The Color Purple and Woman at Point Zero, narratives are expressed in two different forms, private letters as demonstrated with the first book and a traditional storytelling based on a real life event, still both done in first person narrative. The differences between the two main characters are protruded with the tone that both authors imply. Celie is never seen as anything else but a victim, even though she achieves her independence at the end of the story her image only changes from victim to surpass, while Firdaus despite the difficulties always knew who she was, pointed to where she was going and demonstrated it since the beginning of the story as she stated: I knew that women did not become heads of state, but I felt that I was not like other women. [  [20]  ] About the authors intentions, both embed their books with their life. Alice walker pretends to demonstrate not only the marginalized life of the characters she created but of black writers such as herself through the written word. The story itself is a representation of what Walker ´s ancestors went through in the eighteenth century.[  [21]  ] On the other hand, Nadal el Saadawi not only narrates a real life story but in the same book she connects it to her life and describes how she felt while living the moment. Here is where the relationship with both authors varies; Walker recreates what should have been the life of her family some years ago to feel close to her history while El Saadawi makes a direct connection and gets herself involved. Here, the cultural differences are not much of a factor influencing the authors to achieve their intentions, as narrative voices point out the outcry of two characters who aim for the same achievements. 4. Conclusion Both literary techniques complement each other to give the character the development it deserves. It is through the narrative voice and the first person that the character is expressed in its entirety to set free to a set of oppressed emotions in which the characters may find themselves immerse. Whether in writing as Celie did, or verbally as Firdaus, whose story was later on transferred to paper, the tranquility of both women is caused by the release of these feelings. With symbolism, the author looks to supplement those repressed emotions to give a deeper meaning to their struggle and give more validity to the achievements of these characters. Through these symbols the reader can be aware of the development of the characters as the story goes along, the more the symbol gets highlighted, the more important it is. The symbol is an essential element, which also integrates the background context of both, the author and characters to interpret the significance of they ´re development and demonstrate the author`s intention. Word Count: 3971

Saturday, January 18, 2020

National Territory of the Philippines Essay

The Constitution of the Philippines (Filipino: Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas) is the supreme law of the Philippines. The Constitution currently in effect was enacted in 1987, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino, and is popularly known as the â€Å"1987 Constitution†.[1] Philippine constitutional law experts recognize three other previous constitutions as having effectively governed the country — the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution, the 1973 Constitution, and the 1986 Freedom Constitution.[2][3] Constitutions for the Philippines were also drafted and adopted during the short-lived governments of Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo (1898) and Josà © P. Laurel (1943). †¢Ã‚  Background of the 1987 ConstitutionIn 1986, following the People Power Revolution which ousted Ferdinand Marcos as president, and following on her own inauguration, Corazon Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3, declaring a national policy to implement the reforms mandated by the people, protecting their basic rights, adopting a provisional constitution, and providing for an orderly translation to a government under a new constitution.[4] President Aquino later issued Proclamation No. 9, creating a Constitutional Commission (popularly abbreviated â€Å"Con Com† in the Philippines) to frame a new constitution to replace the 1973 Constitution which took effect during the Marcos martial law regime. Aquino appointed 50 members to the Commission. The members of the Commission were drawn from varied backgrounds, including several former congressmen, a former Supreme Court Chief Justice (Roberto Concepcion), a Catholic bishop (Teodoro Bacani) and film director (Lino Brocka). Aquino also deliberately appointed 5 members, including former Labor Minister Blas Ople, who had been allied with Marcos until the latter’s ouster. After the Commission had convened, it elected as its president Cecilia Muà ±oz-Palma, who had emerged as a leading figure in the anti-Marcos opposition following her retirement as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. The Commission finished the draft charter within four months after it was convened. Several issues were heatedly debated during the sessions, including on the form of government to adopt, the abolition of the death penalty, the continued retention of the Clark and Subic American military bases, and the integration of economic policies into the Constitution. Brocka would walk out of the Commission  before its completion, and two other delegates would dissent from the final draft. The ConCom completed their task on October 12, 1986 and presented the draft constitution to President Aquino on October 15, 1986. After a period of nationwide information campaign, a plebiscite for its ratification was held on February 2, 1987. More than three-fourth of all votes cast, 76.37% (or 17,059,495 voters) favored ratification as against 22.65% (or 5,058,714 voters) who voted against ratification. On February 11, 1987, the new constitution was proclaimed ratified and took effect. On that same day, Aquino, the other government officials, and the Armed Forces of the Philippines pledged allegiance to the Constitution. Significant features of the 1987 Constitution The Constitution establishes the Philippines as a â€Å"democratic and republican State†, where â€Å"sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them†. (Section 1, Article II) Consistent with the doctrine of separation of powers, the powers of the national government are exercised in main by three branches — the executive branch headed by the President, the legislative branch composed of Congress and the judicial branch with the Supreme Court occupying the highest tier of the judiciary. The President and the members of Congress are directly elected by the people, while the members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President from a list formed by the Judicial and Bar Council. As with the American system of government, it is Congress which enacts the laws, subject to the veto power of the President which may nonetheless be overturned by a two-thirds vote of Congress (Section 27(1), Article VI). The President has the constit utional duty to ensure the faithful execution of the laws (Section 17, Article VII), while the courts are expressly granted the power of judicial review (Section 1, Article VIII), including the power to nullify or interpret laws. The President is also recognized as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces (Section 18, Article VII). The Constitution also establishes limited political autonomy to the local government units that act as the municipal governments for provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays. (Section 1, Article X) Local governments are generally considered as falling under the executive branch, yet local legislation requires enactment by duly elected local legislative  bodies. The Constitution (Section 3, Article X) mandated that the Congress would enact a Local Government Code. The Congress duly enacted Republic Act No. 7160, The Local Government Code of 1991, which became effective on 1 January 1992.[5] The Supreme Court has noted that the Bill of Rights â€Å"occupies a position of primacy in the fundamental law†.[6] The Bill of Rights, contained in Article III, enumerates the specific protections against State power. Many of these guarantees are similar to those provided in the American constitution and other democratic constitutions, including the due process and equal protection clause, the right against unwarranted searches and seizures, the right to free speech and the free exercise of religion, the right against self-incrimination, and the right to habeas corpus. The scope and limitations to these rights have largely been determined by Philippine Supreme Court decisions. Outside of the Bill of Rights, the Constitution also contains several other provisions enumerating various state policies including, i.e., the affirmation of labor â€Å"as a primary social economic force† (Section 14, Article II); the equal protection of â€Å"the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception† (Section 12, Article II); the â€Å"Filipino family as the foundation of the nation† (Article XV, Section 1); the recognition of Filipino as â€Å"the national language of the Philippines† (Section 6, Article XVI), and even a requirement that â€Å"all educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors.† (Section 19.1, Article XIV) Whether these provisions may, by themselves, be the source of enforceable rights without accompanying legislation has been the subject of considerable debate in the legal sphere and within the Supreme Court. The Court, for example, has ruled that a provision requiring that the State â€Å"guarantee equal access to opportunities to public service† could not be enforced without accompanying legislation, and thus could not bar the disallowance of so-called â€Å"nuisance candidates† in presidential elections.[7] But in another case, the Court held that a provision requiring that the State â€Å"protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology† did not require implementing legislation to become the source of operative rights.[8] Historical constitutions Constitution of Biak-na-Bato (1897) The Katipunan revolution led to the Tejeros Convention where, at San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite, on March 22, 1897, the first presidential and vice presidential elections in Philippine history were held—although only the Katipuneros (members of the Katipunan) were able to take part, and not the general populace. A later meeting of the revolutionary government established there, held on November 1, 1897 at Biak-na-Bato in the town of San Miguel de Mayumo in Bulacan, established the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. The republic had a constitution drafted by Isabelo Artacho and Fà ©lix Ferrer and based on the first Cuban Constitution.[9] It is known as the â€Å"Constitucià ³n Provisional de la Repà ºblica de Filipinas†, and was originally written in and promulgated in the Spanish and Tagalog languages.[10] Malolos Constitution (1899) The Malolos Constitution was the first republican constitution in Asia.[11] It declared that sovereignty resides exclusively in the people, stated basic civil rights, separated the church and state, and called for the creation of an Assembly of Representatives to act as the legislative body. It also called for a Presidential form of government with the president elected for a term of four years by a majority of the Assembly.[12] It was titled â€Å"Constitucià ³n polà ­tica†, and was written in Spanish following the declaration of independence from Spain,[13] proclaimed on January 20, 1899, and was enacted and ratified by the Malolos Congress, a Congress held in Malolos, Bulacan.[14][15] Acts of the United States Congress The Philippines was a United States Territory from December 10, 1898 to March 24, 1934.[16] As such, the Philippines was under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States during this period. Two acts of the United States Congress passed during this period can be considered Philippine constitutions in that those acts defined the fundamental political principles, and established the structure, procedures, powers and duties, of the Philippine government. 1.The Philippine Organic Act of 1902, sometimes known as the â€Å"Philippine Bill of 1902†, was the first organic law for the Philippine Islands enacted by the United States Congress. It  provided for the creation of a popularly elected Philippine Assembly, and specified that legislative power would be vested in a bicameral legislature composed of the Philippine Commission (upper house) and the Philippine Assembly (lower house). Its key provisions included a bill of rights for the Filipinos and the appointm ent of two nonvoting Filipino resident commissioners to represent the Philippines in the United States Congress. 2.The Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, sometimes known as â€Å"Jones Law†, modified the structure of the Philippine government by removing the Philippine Commission as the legislative upper house, replacing it with a Senate elected by Filipino voters. This act also explicitly stated that it was and had always been the purpose of the people of the United States to withdraw their sovereignty over the Philippine Islands and to recognize Philippine independence as soon as a stable government can be established therein. Though not a constitution itself, the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 provided authority and defined mechanisms for the establishment of a formal constitution via a constitutional convention. Commonwealth and Third Republic (1935) The 1935 Constitution was written in 1934, approved and adopted by the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1946) and later used by the Third Republic of the Philippines (1946-1972). It was written with an eye to meeting the approval of the United States Government as well, so as to ensure that the U.S. would live up to its promise to grant the Philippines independence and not have a premise to hold onto its â€Å"possession† on the grounds that it was too politically immature and hence unready for full, real independence. The original 1935 Constitution provided for unicameral National Assembly and the President was elected to a six-year term without re-election. It was amended in 1940 to have a bicameral Congress composed of a Senate and House of Representatives, as well the creation of an independent electoral commission. The Constitution now granted the President a four-year term with a maximum of two consecutive terms in office. A Constitutional Convention was held in 1971 to rewrite the 1935 Constitution. The convention was stained with manifest bribery and corruption. Possibly the most controversial issue was removing the presidential term limit so that Ferdinand E. Marcos could seek election for a third term, which many  felt was the true reason for which the convention was called. In any case, the 1935 Constitution was suspended in 1972 with Marcos’ proclamation of martial law, the rampant corruption of the constitutional process providing him with one of his major premises for doing so. Second Republic (1943) The 1943 Constitution was drafted by a committee appointed by the Philippine Executive Commission, the body established by the Japanese to administer the Philippines in lieu of the Commonwealth of the Philippines which had established a government-in-exile. In mid-1942 Japanese Premier Hideki Tojo had promised the Filipinos â€Å"the honor of independence† which meant that the commission would be supplanted by a formal republic. The Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence tasked with drafting a new constitution was composed in large part, of members of the prewar National Assembly and of individuals with experience as delegates to the convention that had drafted the 1935 Constitution. Their draft for the republic to be established under the Japanese Occupation, however, would be limited in duration, provide for indirect, instead of direct, legislative elections, and an even stronger executive branch. Upon approval of the draft by the Committee, the new charter was ra tified in 1943 by an assembly of appointed, provincial representatives of the Kalibapi, the organization established by the Japanese to supplant all previous political parties. Upon ratification by the Kalibapi assembly, the Second Republic was formally proclaimed (1943-1945). Josà © P. Laurel was appointed as President by the National Assembly and inaugurated into office in October 1943. Laurel was highly regarded by the Japanese for having openly criticised the US for the way they ran the Philippines, and because he had a degree from Tokyo International University. The 1943 Constitution remained in force in Japanese-controlled areas of the Philippines, but was never recognized as legitimate or binding by the governments of the United States or of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and guerrilla organizations loyal to them. In late 1944, President Laurel declared a state of war existed with the United States and the British Empire and proclaimed martial law, essentially ruling by decree. His government in turn went into exile in December, 1944, first to Taiwan and then Japan. After the announcement of Japan’s surrender, Laurel formally proclaimed the Second Republic as dissolved. Until the  1960s, the Second Republic, and its officers, were not viewed as legitimate or as having any standing, with the exception of the Supreme Court whose decisions, limited to reviews of criminal and commercial cases as part of a policy of discretion by Chief Justice Josà © Yulo continued to be part of the official records (this was made easier by the Commonwealth never constituting a Supreme Court, and the formal vacancy in the chief justice position for the Commonwealth with the execution of Chief Justice Josà © Abad Santos by the Japanese). It was only during the Macapagal administration that a partial, political rehabilitation of the Japanese-era republic took place, with the recognition of Laurel as a former president and the addition of his cabinet and other officials to the roster of past government officials. However, the 1943 charter was not taught in schools and the laws of the 1943-44 National Assembly never recognized as valid or relevant. The 1943 Constitution provided strong executive powers. The Legislature consisted of a unicameral National Assembly and only those considered as anti-US could stand for election, although in practice most legislators were appointed rather than elected. The New Society and the Fourth Republic (1973) The 1973 Constitution, promulgated after Marcos’ declaration of martial law, was supposed to introduce a parliamentary-style government. Legislative power was vested in a National Assembly whose members were elected for six-year terms. The President was ideally supposed to be elected as the symbolic and purely ceremonial head of state from the Members of the National Assembly for a six-year term and could be re-elected to an unlimited number of terms. Upon election, the President ceased to be a member of the National Assembly. During his term, the President was not allowed to be a member of a political party or hold any other office. Executive power was meant to be exercised by the Prime Minister who was also elected from the Members of the National Assembly. The Prime Minister was the head of government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. This constitution was subsequently amended four times (arguably five depending on how one considers Proclamation No. 3 of 1986). On October 16-17 1976, a majority of barangay voters (Citizen Assemblies) approved that martial law should be continued and ratified the amendments to the Constitution proposed  by President Marcos.[19] The 1976 amendments were: †¢an Interim Batasang Pambansa (IBP) substituting for the Interim National Assembly †¢the President would also become the Prime Minister and he would continue to exercise legislative powers until martial law should have been lifted. The Sixth Amendment authorized the President to legislate: Whenever in the judgment of the President there exists a grave emergency or a threat or imminence thereof, or whenever the Interim Batasang Pambansa or the regular National Assembly fails or is unable to act adequately on any matter for any reason that in his judgment requires immediate action, he may, in order to meet the exigency, issue the necessary decrees, orders or letters of instructions, which shall form part of the law of the land. The 1973 Constitution was further amended in 1980 and 1981. In the 1980 amendment, the retirement age of the members of the Judiciary was extended to 70 years. In the 1981 amendments, the false parliamentary system was formally modified into a French-style semi-presidential system: †¢executive power was restored to the President; †¢direct election of the President was restored; †¢an Executive Committee composed of the Prime Minister and not more than fourteen members was created to â€Å"assist the President in the exercise of his powers and functions and in the performance of his duties as he may prescribe;† and the Prime Minister was a mere head of the Cabinet. †¢Further, the amendments instituted electoral reforms and provided that a natural born citizen of the Philippines who has lost his citizenship may be a transferee of private land for use by him as his residence. The last amendments in 1984 abolished the Executive Committee and restored the position of Vice-President (which did not exist in the original, unamended 1973 Constitution). In actual practice, while the 1973 Constitution was ideally supposed to set up a true parliamentary system, the late President Marcos had made use of subterfuge and manipulation in order to keep executive power for himself, rather than devolving executive powers to the Parliament, as headed by the Prime Minister. The end result was that the 1973 Constitution – due to all amendments and subtle manipulations – was  merely the abolition of the Senate and a series of cosmetic text-changes where the old American-derived terminologies such House of Representatives became known as the â€Å"Batasang Pambansa† (National Assembly), Departments became known as â€Å"Ministries†, cabinet secretaries became known as â€Å"cabinet ministers†, and the President’s assistant – the Executive Secretary – became known as the â€Å"Prime Minister.† Ultimately, Marcos’ so-called â€Å"Parliamentary System† therefore functioned as an authoritarian-run Presidential System due to the series of amendments and other modifications put in place after the 1973 Constitution was ratified. 1986 â€Å"Freedom Constitution† Following the EDSA People Power Revolution that removed President Ferdinand E. Marcos from office, the new President, Corazon C. Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3 as a provisional constitution to would prepare for the next constitution. It adopted certain provisions from the 1973 constitution and granted the President broad powers to reorganise the government and remove officials from office, and mandated that the president would appoint a commission to draft a new constitution. refference/source; # a b â€Å"The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines†. 15 October 1986. Retrieved 2008-04-03. # ^ Isagani Cruz (1993). Constitutional Law. Quezon City, Philippines: Central Lawbook Publishing Co., Inc.. pp. 19. ISBN 971-16-0184-2. # ^ Joaquin Bernas, S.J. (1996). The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentary. Manila, Philippines: Rex Book Store. pp. xxxiv-xxxix. ISBN 971-23-2013-8. # ^ â€Å"1986 Provisional â€Å"Freedom† Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines†. 25 March 1986. Retrieved 2008-04-03. # ^ â€Å"Local Government Code of 1991†. 1 January 1992. Retrieved 2007-06-09. # ^ â€Å"People vs. Tatud (G.R. No. 144037)†. Supreme Court of t he Philippines. 26 September 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-09. # ^ â€Å"Pamatong vs. Comelec (G.R. No. 161872)†. Supreme Court of the Philippines. 13 April 2004. Retrieved 2007-06-09. # ^ â€Å"Oposa et al. v. Fulgencio (G.R. No. 101083)†. Supreme Court of the Philippines (requoted by 30 July 1993. Retrieved 2007-06-09. # ^ Wikisource-logo.svg 1897 Constitution of Biak-na-Bato (Philippines) at Wikisource. # ^ â€Å"1897 Biac-na-Bato Constitution†. Corpus Juris. 1 November 1897. Retrieved 2009-01-25. # ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. p. 364. ISBN 9781851099511. # ^ Guevara, Sulpico, ed (2005). The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899.. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972). pp. 104–119.;iel=1;view=toc;idno=aab1246.0001.001. Retrieved 2008-03-26 . (English translation by Sulpicio Guevara) # ^ Guevara 2005, p. 88.

Friday, January 10, 2020

New Questions About Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care Answered and Why You Must Read Every Word of This Report

New Questions About Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care Answered and Why You Must Read Every Word of This Report Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care and Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care - The Perfect Combination The writing test is marked utilizing a 9-band scale, like the other sections of the test. Time yourself and allow only one hour to finish both portions of the test. It to complete both parts. Ideas, Formulas and Shortcuts for Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care However, governments shouldn't be called on to force healthful attitudes on people. Healthy individuals make a wholesome society. Grandparents as Carers Nowadays grandparents have to deal with their grandchildren. A Startling Fact about Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care Uncovered Children are comfortable to talk about their ideas and feelings with them. Provide your views and a few examples. Characteristics of Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care I would support the second opinion l ike I feel that the health insurance is affordable and it can help to find the much better services. Finally, to acheive in the previous point you have to be able to demonstrate you could notice and write about the essential things which are going on in the graph, and make comparisons between the data. Thus, a security net in the shape of a simple free wellness care system must exist for the exact poor and the unemployed. On the other hand, the reverse is also accurate. You also need to demonstrate your capacity to compose a clear, well-structured argument. What's more, there are various solutions to have kids. You also desire a mixture of cohesive devices. An intriguing mixture of complex grammar structures will also need to be produced. Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care - the Conspiracy Person needs to be deliberate and parents infuation to create their child tenable only keeps them in cages, not able to look beyond the box. Finally, it's up to the parents to care r egarding their kids and act for the benefit of the full family. At present, many parents have a tendency to be busy working and they must rely on somebody else to look after their children. As a consequence the new parents did not receive the experience of rearing a young child from their elders. What You Should Do to Find Out About Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care Before You're Left Behind Moreover, in the event the income increases, it isn't mandatory that the premium would also rise. Certainly, money is a significant role in our lives. Certainly, it plays an important part in our lives. Hence, it's said, marry for money is right in a point. Free health cover for people that are in a position to cover it's a waste of public money. It's challenging for any persons to accept a partner who doesn't have money, or no less than a job to look after their upcoming family. So, for a lot of people, it may appear appropriate to marry for money instead of love. To a lot of individuals, it's appropriate to marry for money instead of love. Consequently, there's a limit to the attention they can give to every kid. Secondly, internet shopping isn't always appropriate, based on the merchandise. On the 1 hand, it is thought that youngsters ought to be sent to childcare centres for some reasons. Firstly, both the parents can go to work with no worry for their kids and which subsequently grandparents can get the respect in the opinion of their on ward. What Is So Fascinating About Ielts Essay Writing Samples Child Care? Again, take a look at some of the model essays to view how each body paragraph clearly has one central topic. U sing plenty of new words you don't understand how to use properly could make your writing worse, so be mindful! To take a very simple example, if you're writing about the pros and cons of something, you might want one paragraph about each. Luckily, we've got a huge choice of IELTS Writing practice questions for you on this website. It's possible to request for IELTS practice course also. Practice makes perfect in regards to IELTS Writing. You ought to use words that aren't typical in an everyday conversation. You should have frequent error-free sentences. Try out the next IELTS writing task two question now.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

College Education Is A Major Crisis - 1080 Words

In today’s society, American youth are facing a major crisis. The government’s statistics show that a large percentage of young men and women are joining the ranks of the unemployed. The most startling fact is that many of these individuals are recent college graduates. Many studies stress the importance of a college education, calling it an â€Å"economic investment† and the â€Å"most important choice made in a person’s lifetime†. Indeed, the decision to pursue college education is important, but many people do not consider the risks of doing so. While going to college seems like a noble pursuit, it is simply not feasible for this generation of young people, as the astronomical expenses, fierce competition of the job market, and the increasing obsolescence of the college degree are major deciding factors against the idea of getting a college education. The most important factor against getting a college education is the cost involved. Education is like an investment or an economic decision. Many people seriously overlook the implications of spending massive sums of money just to get a degree because they are expected to do so. Former US Secretary of Education William Bennett says that There are three main reasons [why college is expensive]. One is a lot of families will pay anything to send their kids to college. Two, many colleges will try to get as much money as they can. Three, the federal government endlessly subsidizes the increases in college and higher education.Show MoreRelatedStudents Should Not Be A Cause For Student Boredom846 Words   |  4 Pagesbecause they prefer the nonacademic characteristics of education such as sports, clubs, or art programs. A student’s boredom in high school relates to STEM educational programs in college because an individual’s experience in high school may affect his or her sel ection of a major in a community college or university. If someone still wants to pursue a STEM career after high school, then he or she will be faced with additional struggles in college. The fields of science, technology, engineering, andRead MorePost Secondary Education Comes At A High Price864 Words   |  4 PagesPost-secondary education comes at a high price. The excitement of graduating college to land the six-figure job is soon destroyed when students realize how much debt they obtain. Dreams of owning a house and starting a family are shattered by the money borrowed to provide and guarantee students an excellent future. Instead of waiting to land the ideal job, students work multiple jobs to help ends meet. Struggling to stay afloat, millions of students become victims of one of the major economic crisis in theRead MoreStudent Debt Over The Years876 Words   |  4 PagesPost-secondary education comes at a very high price. The excitement of graduating college to land the six-figure job is soon destroyed when you realize how much debt you are in. Dreams of owning a house and starting a family is shattered by the money borrowed to provide and guarantee student s a better future. Instead of waiting to land that perfect job, students are forced to work multiple jobs to help ends meet. Struggling to stay afloat, millions of students are becoming victims of one of the major economicRead MoreThe Nationwide Student Debt Crisis967 Words   |  4 PagesFact or Fiction: The Nationwide Student Debt Crisis In the United States, it is generally accepted that college (or any form of higher education for that matter) is a wise investment that each and every individual should strive for. Each and every year thousands of parents open college funds and future investment plans to ensure that once their child is of age he or she can participate in quality educational programs. 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Dreams of owning a house and starting a family are shattered by the money borrowed to provide and guarantee students an excellent future. Instead of waiting to land the ideal job, students work multiple jobs to help ends meet. Struggling to stay afloat, millions of students become victims of one of the major economicRead MoreWill Free Colleg es Solve The Student Debt Crisis?1479 Words   |  6 PagesFree Colleges solve the Student Debt Crisis? Every American student has a dream to go to college and to be debt-free. Due to the upcoming presidential elections, candidate Senator Bernie Sanders wants to introduce a bill that would cover the tuition costs for students who attend two and four-year institution. This question makes many Americans wonder, will free public colleges solve the student debt crisis. Although free tuition would help stop the fast-paced growth of the Student Debt Crisis, itRead MoreThe Financial Crisis Of 20081326 Words   |  6 Pagesfinancial crisis of 2008, President Obama completely eliminated the middleman and fully implemented direct student loans (Kingkade). Although this stopped large banks from profiting off of government backed loans, it still didn’t reduce the supply of loans or the ease of obtaining them. Availability of Credit As tuition has been on the steady rise, student debt to finance the education has been increasing exponentially. As stated above, this is the main driving for behind the higher education bubbleRead MoreIncome Share Agreements ( Isa )1169 Words   |  5 PagesAgreements (ISA) With student loan debt becoming increasingly worse year after year, new and potentially better avenues for students to finance a college education are emerging onto the market. In particular, income-share agreements (ISA) have appeared on the scene for a few years now, but not have attempted to modernize the way students pay for college. The big take away from ISA’s is the shift of financial risk from the student to the investor, unlike the traditional government or private loansRead MoreWhy so Expensive?922 Words   |  4 PagesWhy So Expensive? College is said to be some of the best years of your life. The parties, the freedom, and the new experience help you find new friends, hopefully a career and yourself, but rising college cost are having young adults stressing instead of enjoying the college experience. Every year less and less states are giving their college’s money and more and more students are asking for financial aid or taking out student loans. The more that college tuition continues to rise the more of